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A People Group ( 族群 )

It is a “significantly large grouping of individuals who perceive themselves to have a common affinity for one another because of their shared language, religion, ethnicity, residence, occupation, class or caste, situation, etc., or combinations of these”. For evangelical purposes it is “the largest group within which the gospel can spread as a church planting movement without encountering barriers of understanding or acceptance.

Source: Perspectives P. 514


An Unreached People Group ( 未得之民 / 族群 )

It is “a people group within which there is no indigenous community of believing Christians able to evangelize this people group.”


Business as Mission ( 營商宣教 )

  1. Business for mission:using the proceeds of a business as a way of financing mission
  2. Mission in business:hiring nonbelievers and offering chaplaincy services with a view to leading them to Christ
  3. Business as platform for mission:work and professional life as means of channeling mission throughout the world
  4. Business as mission:business as part of the mission of God in the world

Source: Sunki Bang of the Business Ministry of Seoul, Korea

  1. 營商支持宣教 ( Business for mission ):以營商的盈利支持宣教
  2. 營商中的宣教 ( Mission in business ):在營商環境中聘請非信徒,向他們作見證
  3. 營商為宣教遮蓋 ( Business as platform for mission ):借營商的名義去從事宣教活動
  4. 營商宣教 ( Business as mission ):藉真正的營商業務去從事宣教活動



BAM Top 10 Models ( 營商宣教十大模式 )

1. 教育服務 (例:語言學校、補習社)

Education Service (e.g. language school, tutorial center)

2. 零售店 (例:咖啡店)

Retail (e.g. cafe)

3. 專業服務 (例:IT、訓練)

Professional Service (e.g. IT, training)

4. 貿易 (線上拍賣及購物網站)

Trading (e.g. online auction and shopping website)

5. 工廠 (例:手工藝)

Factory (e.g. handicraft)

6. 旅遊 (例:旅行社)

Tourism (e.g. travel agency)

7. 農場 (例: 大麥)、牧場 (例:牛羊)

Agriculture (e.g. wheat) and Pasture (e.g. cows and goats)

8. 醫療衛生 (例:診所)

Medical Service (e.g. clinic)

9. 社會企業 (例:少額貸款)

Social Enterprise (e.g. micro-finance)

10. 其他 (例:長途電話服務)

Others (e.g. IDD Service)


Creative Access Nations / Restricted Access Nations ( 創啟地區 / 封閉地區 )

Traditional missionaries apply for a visa to enter a country as a "missionary". However, most of the countries in the 10/40 Window do not issue "missionary" visas. Creative access refers to using non-traditional means to gain formal permission to live and work long-term in a closed country. These non-traditional means may take the form of being a student, a teacher, a businessman, a medical professional, etc.

Source: www.mmronline.org

傳統宣教士申請宣教士簽證出國 ( Open Access Nations / 開放地區 ) ,但大多數10/40之窗國家不發宣教士簽證,工人需以創新方式獲取身份居留,如學生、老師、商人、醫護人員等。


10/40 Window ( 10 / 40之窗 )

The 10/40 Window is the rectangular area of North Africa, the Middle East and Asia approximately between 10 degrees north and 40 degrees north latitude. The 10/40 Window is often called "The Resistant Belt" and includes the majority of the world's Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists…An estimated 4.43 billion individuals residing in approximately 8,740 distinct people groups are in the revised 10/40 Window.

Source: www.joshuaproject.net

10/40之窗是指北緯約1040度,橫跨北非、中東、亞洲的長方形地域,是世上穆斯林、印度教徒、佛教徒的集中地,被稱為「抗拒 ( 福音 ) 地帶」……估計有44.3億人口,包括8,740族群住在其中。



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